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古玩城2019精品推荐第12期:古玉
2019-12-26 21:47:16 来源: 未知

古玉是古代美石之泛称,具有质地细腻、色泽湿润、莹和光洁、冬不冰手、夏无激感等优点,遂为世人所喜爱并逐步成为封建礼制的重要表征。一般汉代以前的玉器为"古玉"。

Ancient jade is a general term for ancient beautiful stones. It has the advantages of fine texture, moist color, bright and clean, no ice in winter, no excitement in summer and so on. Therefore, it is loved by the world and gradually becomes an important symbol of feudal etiquette. Generally, the jade before Han Dynasty is "ancient jade".

 

我国自古以来就有收藏玉器的时尚,商代富豪墓中就有红山文化、石家河文化时期的玉器出土,历代君王如秦始皇、宋高宗、清乾隆等都是玉器的大收藏家;宋代吕大临的《考古图》、元代朱德润的《古玉图》、明代曹昭的《格古要论》、清代吴大的《古玉图考》等都是古玉收藏与研究的论著。我国的玉雕自史前时期的新石器时代开始至今已经历了七千余年的发展,成为蜚声世界、独步天下的工艺美术品,在世界上三个以制玉而闻名的国家(中国、墨西哥、新西兰)中最为源远流长。中国人对玉的特殊喜好自古有之,古人云,石之美者为玉。也曾有人形象的比喻,玉是大地的舍利。被誉为华夏文明第一块奠基石的高古玉,有着高深莫测的神秘色彩。在古代,君子无故 玉不去身,君子与玉彼德焉。而玉的温润色泽象征仁慈,坚硬质地象征智慧,不伤人的棱角表示公平正义。民间相信玉能护身、驱邪,代表着正气和灵性。对于古玉,可以工精、质优、色巧、形奇为标准进行收藏。一般说来,新玉的鉴定侧重于真假玉材、质地优劣与雕工的精细;而旧玉的鉴定,则要识别玉器的制作时代、历史上的作用和占有者的身份等等。古玉一般刀法比较精美,纹饰比较古朴,鉴赏古玉,更应重视的是其文化内涵和历史价值。

There has been a fashion of collecting jade since ancient times in China. Among the tombs of the rich in the Shang Dynasty, there were unearthed jade of Hongshan Culture and Shijiahe culture. The kings of all dynasties, such as the first emperor of Qin, Gaozong of Song Dynasty and Qianlong of Qing Dynasty, were big collectors of jade. The archaeology map of Lu Dalin of Song Dynasty, the ancient jade map of Zhu Derun of Yuan Dynasty, the gegu essentials of Cao Zhao of Ming Dynasty and the ancient jade map of Wu Da of Qing Dynasty, etc They are all works of ancient jade collection and research. Since the Neolithic Age in prehistoric times, jade carving in China has experienced more than 7000 years of development. It has become a world-famous and unique arts and crafts. It has a long history among the three countries (China, Mexico, New Zealand) famous for making jade in the world. Chinese people have a special preference for jade since ancient times. The beauty of ancient cloud and stone is jade. There was also an image metaphor, jade is the sacrifice of the earth. Known as the first cornerstone of Chinese civilization, Gaogu jade has profound mystery. In ancient times, a gentleman did not go to the body without reason, and a gentleman and a jade were virtuous. But the Jade's warm color symbolizes kindness, the rigid symbol wisdom, does not hurt the person's edge angle to express the fair justice. People believe that jade can protect and expel evil spirits, representing righteousness and spirituality. For ancient jade, it can be collected according to the standards of fine workmanship, excellent quality, skillful color and strange shape. Generally speaking, the identification of new jade focuses on the true and false jade materials, the quality of texture and the fineness of sculptors, while the identification of old jade requires the identification of the time of making jade, the role in history and the identity of the possessor, etc. Generally, ancient jade has exquisite knife techniques and simple patterns. To appreciate ancient jade, we should pay more attention to its cultural connotation and historical value.

 

中华民族爱玉敬玉崇玉的历史悠久,从上古先民直至近代,人们对玉均情有独钟,中国在各个时期都遗存有一批极富时代特征及历史研究价值的代表性器物,大体上有夏朝古陶器、商周青铜器、战汉漆器、隋唐金银器、宋明清瓷器,这些器物虽然在历史长河中各领风骚,却没有一种能像玉器那样经久不衰,长期受到民众如此的宠爱,这是世界上其他任何国家和地区所无法比拟的。

The Chinese nation has a long history of loving jade and worshiping it. From the ancient people to the modern times, people have a special interest in jade. There are a lot of representative artifacts in various periods of China, which are rich in the characteristics of the times and the value of historical research. Generally speaking, there are ancient pottery in the Xia Dynasty, bronze in the Shang and Zhou dynasties, lacquer in the Han Dynasty, gold and silver in the Sui and Tang Dynasties, and porcelain in the song and Ming and Qing Dynasties. Although these artifacts are popular in the long history, they have their own advantages However, none of them can last as long as jade and have been so loved by the people for a long time, which is incomparable to any other country and region in the world.

 

 

 

 

 

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